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Inflammatory breast cancer: a locally advanced form of breast cancer characterised by thickening of the skin giving an orange peel (peau d'orange) appearance, redness, warmth, and sometimes tenderness. This may be associated with a large tumour mass. The risk of, or developing, distant metastasis (see entry) is very high. Treatment is usually by chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, where appropriate, in the first instance. Local treatment control is then by either surgery and / or radiotherapy.

Invasive ductal breast cancer: A common form of breast cancer that forms up to 80-85% of invasive breast cancer types. Most are classified as ductal cancers of no special type or not otherwise specified (NOS). In the early phase, invasive breast cancer may be detected on screening mammography as a small spiculate mass with architectural distortion. DCIS (see entry) may be a precursor lesion, and may present with associated microcalcification. Special types of invasive ductal breast cancer can form up to 10% of cases, and are classified as tubular, medullary, mucoid, etc based upon pathological appearances. Mixed forms are also possible. Triple assessment is a very accurate means of establishing a pre-operative diagnosis. See breast cancer entry.

Invasive lobular breast cancer: A form of breast cancer that constitutes 10-15% of breast cancers. Less likely than ductal cancer to form a distinct lump in the early stages, as it forms less of a stromal reaction. More likely to be multifocal within the affected breast (25-40%) and to be bilateral (20-40%) compared to invasive ductal cancer. Invasive lobular cancer is more difficult to detect on mammography as the changes can be subtle. Triple assessment is more difficult as invasive lobular cancer is less likely to be visible on ultrasound and needle aspiration cytology. Core biopsy may be more useful in establishing a pre-operative diagnosis. Prognosis, stage for stage, is similar to invasive ductal breast cancer. See breast cancer entry.

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