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Grade of cancer: a series of morphological criteria used to define the degree of aggressiveness of invasive cancer ranging from grade I (low grade) grade II (intermediate grade), to grade III (high grade). The system can be adapted for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). See entries for breast cancer and DCIS.

Gynaecomastia: benign proliferation of the male breast, presenting as a lump close to the nipple-areolar complex. This may happen in puberty and usually regresses spontaneously. The majority of cases in adults have no identifiable cause (idiopathic). Some medication and drugs that cause gynaecomastia are cimetidine, digoxin, spironolactone, anabolic steroids, and marijuana. Gynaecomastia may rarely occur as a result of liver problems (eg cirrhosis), testicular failure or tumours, chronic kidney disease or overactive thyroid conditions. Treatment is directed at the cause where present. Danazol is a drug that may help with symptoms of gynaecomastia. The surgical treatment of idiopathic gynaecomastia is reserved for extreme or unacceptable forms.

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